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Phytochemisty-1, Code PG 404

Aim of the Course

After completion of the course the student should have the knowledge and experience that enables her/ him to understand, describe and deal with the chemistry of volatile oils, resins and resin combinations, carbohydrates, tannins and bitters of plant or animal origin as well as techniques for their, isolation, identification from their respective sources.

Course Contents

  • Introduction to Phytochemistry: Definition, Role of natural products in modern medicine, Different forms of plant products, Different types of plant constituents (Classification), Different methods of extraction, isolation
  • Introduction to Volatile ois: Definition, Historical, Economical importance; Distribution, Localization, Function; Physical properties; Characterization of volatile from fixed oils; Pharmacological properties
  • Methods of preparation (Distillation, Scarification & Expression, Extraction & Methods based on enzymatic hydrolysis of glycosides); Storage & Quality control; Chemistry of the constituents (Terpenoids & Phenylpropanoids).
  • Hydrocarbons in volatile oils: Acyclic terpenoid hydrocarbons (Monoterpenoids, Sesquiterpenoids); Alycyclic terpenoid hydrocarbons (Mono- & bicyclic monoterpenoids; Monocyclic, bi- & Tricyclic sesquiterpenoids); Aromatic hydrocarbons
  • Alcohols in volatile oils: Classification, Isolation, Derivatization & Determination of alcohol content in volatile oils. Examples: [Acyclic terpenoid alcohols (Monoterpenoids); Alicyclic terpenoid alcohols
  • Phenols & Phenolic ethers in volatile oils: Properties, Isomerization & oxidation, General methods of isolation, Classification. Examples: [Mono-, Di-, Tri-, & Tetrahydric phenols & /or phenolic ethers)
  • Aldehydes & Ketones in volatile oils: Classification, Derivatization, Isolation, Determination. Examples: [Acyclic & Alicyclic Monoterpenoid Aldehydes, Aromatic Aldehydes; Alicyclic Terpenoid Ketones (Mono- & Bicyclic monoterpenoids]
  • Esters in volatile oils: Isolation, Identification, Determination, Classification. Examples: [Esters of aliphatic & aromatic acids, Esters containing nitrogen]
  • Oxides & Peroxides, Organo-nitrogen & Organo-sulphur compounds in volatile oils. Aromatic constituents from animal origin (Ambergris & Musks)
  • Resins & Resin combinations Definition, Physical Properties, Biogenesis, Chemical Properties, Distribution in nature, Localization, Preparation, Principal constituents, Classification. Examples:
  • Introduction to carbohydrates: Definition & Classification Monosaccharides Examples [Source, Structure, Isolation, Chemical tests & Uses of Pentoses; Hexoses (Aldo- & Ketohexoses); Deoxysugars (6-Deoxyhexoses
  • Oligosaccharides: Properties; Structure elucidation; Examples [Disaccharides (Non-reducing & Reducing C-4 Dihexoses); Trisaccharides)]. Polysaccharides: Introduction: (Distribution, importance, classification).
  • Heteropolysacharides: Heterosides formed of dissimilar monosaccharide units (cellulosans & neutral mucilages); Polyuronides: (Hemicelluloses, Plant gums Seaweed mucilages); Pectic substances & Mucopolysaccharides.
  • Bitter Principles: Introduction (Definition and general characters, Pharmacological action & Classification. Examples: [Terpenoid bitters & Non-terpenoid bitters (Chromones, Coumarins; Coumarones & Anhydrides).]
  • Tannins: Definition, Types, Distribution, Physiological role, Physical properties, Tests for identification, Quantitative determination, Medicinal & biological, properties, Economical importance, Chemistry (Polyphenolic building units of tannins).


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